• Permissions for copyright-protected material.
  • If any materials in your paper have been previously published (including figures downloaded from the WWW), you must obtain written permission to include them in your paper, and provide us a copy of the written permission (or a link to a publisher statement that the materials can be reused). Such permissions are usually easy to obtain via the Copyright Clearance Center; most publishers provide convenient links on their journal website to obtain permissions (for an example, see procedures for APS journals). The source of the material must be acknowledged; the copyright owner may specify a specific format for the acknowledgment, which must be included in the figure legend.

    Note that obtaining permissions can take several weeks, so begin the process as soon as possible after submitting your manuscript. We cannot publish your paper, even as an article in press, until all copyright permissions have been submitted.

    Altering or redrawing a previously-published figure does not eliminate the need to obtain permission for reuse, or to acknowledge the source of the material in a paper.


  • Ethics statements.
  • The American Physiological Society is strongly invested in publication ethics. Studies that use animal or human subjects must include specific ethics statements, and must be in compliance with the APS Guiding Principles for Research Involving Animals and Human Beings.

    If a manuscript reports data collected from vertebrate animals, a statement must be included that the study was prospectively approved by the ethics committee of jurisdiction in the country where the work was conducted (e.g., in the United States by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee [IACUC]). For example: "All research on animals reported in this manuscript was prospectively approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of University X."

    If a manuscript reports research conducted in human subjects, a statement must be included that the study was reviewed and approved by a research ethics committee (IRB) prior to starting the study, and participants provided written informed consent. For example: "All research on human subjects reported in this manuscript was prospectively approved by the Institutional Review Board of University X, and all participants provided written informed consent." A statement that "informed consent" was obtained is not sufficient; the statement must specify that the consent was in written form.


  • Inappropriate inclusions in figures.
  • Figures should not include any of the following:

    • Depictions of materials with a patent or trademark, unless specific permission is obtained from the holder of the patent or trademark. For example, if a study included the presentation of Disney characters to subjects, the characters cannot be depicted in a figure unless explicit permission is obtained from Disney enterprises and provided to us.
    • Photographs of entire animals, unless there is a clear, explicit need. It is preferred to include a drawing of an animal instead of a photograph.
    • Photographs of human beings, unless the individual portrayed (or their estate if they are deceased) provides written permission.


  • Inappropriately formatted manuscripts.
  • Manuscripts should be in compliance with the author guidelines, and references should be listed in alphabetical order (both in the text and bibliography) and formatted appropriately. All "in press"citations should be updated to the final version if possible. Although we are tolerant of alternate formatting when a paper is first submitted, revised manuscripts must be in the appropriate style. If inappropriate formatting is discovered after acceptance, the author must correct the formatting before the article is published.

    Any supplemental materials for reviewers must be clearly labeled as such, and not included in the final manuscript file. Any supplemental materials intended for publication must be appropriately referenced in the manuscript text.


  • Inappropriately constructed figures.
  • All figures must be high-resolution, and should be in gray scale unless color is absolutely necessary. All figures must be appropriately numbered and referenced in the manuscript text. Manuscript publication can be delayed significantly if authors provide updated versions of figures after manuscript acceptance.


  • Unavailable corresponding author.
  • The corresponding author must approve the final copy-edited and typeset manuscript prior to publication. If the corresponding author will be unavailable after manuscript acceptance, provide the identity of an alternate to the editorial assistant.


  • Changes in authorship.
  • To assure fairness, we require all authors to consent to changes in authorship of a paper. If a request to change authorship occurs late during peer review or after a paper is accepted, publication may be delayed. Thus, authorship changes should be requested as early as possible.

Authors are encouraged to contact the Editorial Assistant if they have any questions about preparing their manuscript.